Nguyen, M. C., X. Zhao, et al. (2014). "sp^3-hybridized framework structure of group-14 elements discovered by genetic algorithm." Physical Review B 89(18): 184112.

Group-14 elements, including C, Si, Ge, and Sn, can form various stable andmetastable structures. Finding new metastable structures of group-14 elements with desirable physical properties for new technological applications has attracted a lot of interest.Using a genetic algorithm, we discovered a newlow-energymetastable distorted sp3-hybridized framework structure of the group-14 elements. It has P42/mnm symmetry with 12 atoms per unit cell.The void volume of this structure is as large as 139.7 °A3 for Si P42/mnm, and it can be used for gas or metal-atom encapsulation. Band-structure calculations show that P42/mnm structures of Si and Ge are semiconducting with energy band gaps close to the optimal values for optoelectronic or photovoltaic applications. With metal-atom encapsulation, the P42/mnm structure would also be a candidate for rattling-mediated superconducting or used as thermoelectric materials.