Bucknum, M. J., C. J. Pickard, et al. (2006). "On the structure of i-carbon." Journal of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry 5(2): 175-185.

In the carbon science literature, there have been various reports over the past few decades of potentially novel crystalline forms of carbon emerging as nanometer scale fragments recovered from the explosive remnants of heated, shock compressed graphite and other precursors of C. Two nanometric and crystalline forms of C that are particularly prominent in these studies are known as n-diamond and i-carbon forms. In our previous work, we have shown that the commonly observed diffraction pattern of n-diamond nanocrystals, recorded by several research groups around the world, is consistent with the calculated diffraction pattern of a novel form of carbon that we propose to call glitter. Glitter is a tetragonal allotrope of carbon with a calculated density of ∼3.08 g/cm3, and the density functional theory (DFT) optimized lattice parameters given as a = 0.2560 nm and c = 0.5925 nm. In addition to the diffraction evidence for n-diamond having the glitter structure, the DFT calculated band structure of glitter shows it to be metallic, like the observed electrical characteristics of n-diamond. In this communication, we report on a comparison of the diffraction pattern observed for nanocrystalline i-carbon by the investigative team of Yamada et al. in 1994, with the calculated diffraction pattern of glitter based upon the optimized lattice parameters. The close fit of the latter dataset to that observed for i-carbon, as reported herein, suggests that indeed i-carbon may be of the same structure as n-diamond, and that they both may have the tetragonal glitter structure.